Collections at the
Herbarium Haussknecht, Jena (JE)

Founded by Carl Haussknecht (1838–1903) in Weimar in 1896, the Herbarium Haussknecht was initially a private institution comprising the vast collections brought together by its founder in a separate building. After Haussknecht’s death in 1903 and execution of a foundation from his estate, the collections were maintained and increased by Joseph Bornmüller (1862–1948). After World War II, the collections were moved to Jena and were affiliated to the Institute of Systematic Botany of the Friedrich Schiller University, to which they officially belonged since the 1920s. Actually, the Herbarium Haussknecht houses about 3.5 Million herbarium specimens, being one of the major European herbaria.

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Carl Haussknecht started plant collecting not earlier than in the mid-1850s. Compared with the size of the entire collection, there is a rather low number of older material at JE. Such historical collections include for example the herbaria of Christian Ehrenfried Weigel (1748–1831) and Johann Friedrich Glaser (1707–1789), which are kept separately. Other collections containing large amounts of old material are the herbaria of Charles Gaillardot (1814–1883) and Wilhelm Gerhard (1780–1858), both acquired by Haussknecht, and those of Alwin Georges (1823–1893) and Thilo Irmisch (1816–1879). Besides the widely distributed exsiccata, like those of Friedrich Metz (1819–1885) and Franz Sieber (1789–1844), these collections include even rarer material, for example specimens collected by Friedrich August Marschall von Bieberstein (1768–1826), Anton Rochel (1770–1847), and Johan Peter Rottler (1749–1836).

 

Herbarium Haussknecht IMG_8856_Titel_klein

 

Central Europe

One major focus of the collections at JE is Central Europe, especially Germany, but also Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Switzerland, Austria , and northern Italy. Within Germany, there are comprehensive collections from Thuringia from the early 18th century until today, made by many different collectors. Major original collections important for floristic research also cover the other eastern states. Haussknecht also traveled extensively throughout most other regions of Central Europe, as did also some contemporary or later Thuringian botanists. Ernst Sagorski (1847–1929), coauthor of a flora of the central Carpathians, made important collections in the Tatra Mountains.

 

Southern Europe

The most important collection from southern Europe at JE is the material gathered on the 1885 travel of Haussknecht to Greece, with the results being published in the “Symbolae ad floram graecam“ several years later. Haussknecht also made collections in central and southern Italy. Ernst Sagorski made a number of travels to Bosnia and the Hercegovina. Werner Rothmaler (1908–1962) collected for several years in Portugal and Spain. Important collecting trips have been made during socialistic times to southeastern Europe, e.g., Albania by Friedrich Karl Meyer (1926–2012), and Bulgaria by different collectors.

 

Southwestern Asia

This region is the second main focus of the vascular plant collections of JE, which is one of the world‘s leading herbaria of Middle East collections. The stock bases on Haussknecht‘s two expeditions to the Orient in 1865 and 1867–69, when he collected many new species published in Pierre Edmond Boissier‘s (1810–1885) “Flora orientalis“. Regions concerned by the two expeditions are southeastern Turkey, northern Syria, northern and eastern Iraq, western Iran, and to a lesser extent the Caucasian region. Haussknecht‘s travels were also important for other disciplines like geography and ethnology.

Further important original collections are those of Charles Gaillardot, a major French diplomate, who collected in Lebanon and Syria, and Theodor Strauss (1859–1911), a Thuringian who became a whealthy businessman in Sultanabad (today Arak, Iran) and collected for Haussknecht in Iran and Iraq. Extensive exchange and specimen determination resulted in many duplicates of, e.g., Benedict Balansa (1825–1891), Charles Isodore Blanche (1823–1887), Pierre Edmond Boissier, Joseph Bornmüller, Eugène Bourgeau (1813–1877), Henry Hunter Calvert (1816–1882), Theodor von Heldreich (1822–1902), Alfred Huët du Pavillon (1829–1907), Joseph Armin Knapp (1843–1899), Theodor Kotschy (1813–1866), Johannes Jacob Manissadjian (1862–1942), Thomas Pichler (1828–1903), Walter Siehe (1859–1928), and Paul Sintenis (1847–1907). Otto Schwarz (1900–1983) stayed for several years in Turkey in the 1930s; a part of his collections from there came to JE with his herbarium. More recently, Hermann Manitz (*1941), Friedrich Karl Meyer (1926–2012), and Hans-Joachim Zündorf (*1953) made several collecting trips to the Caucasus region.

 

Africa

African collections at JE especially cover North Africa, e.g., specimens of Benedict Balansa, Louis Chevallier (1852–1938), Ernest Saint-Charles Cosson, (1819–1889), Alphonse Faure (1865–1958), Charles Gaillardot, Paul Kuegler, René Maire (1878–1949), Edouard Gabriel Paris (1827–1911), Elisée Reverchon (1835–1914), Gustav Ruhmer (1853–1883), Franz Wilhelm Sieber (1789–1844), Wilhelm Taubert (1862–1897), and Georg Ludwig Volkens (1855–1917). Original collections from sub-Saharan Africa include those of Antonio Garnier from Madagascar and Hans Meyer‘s (1858–1929) 4th journey to East Africa. Besides widespread exsiccata like those of Christian Frederik Ecklon (1795–1868) & Carl Ludwig Philip Zeyher (1799–1858), Theodor Kotschy, Georg Heinrich Wilhelm Schimper (1804–1878),  Adolf Ferdinand Stolz (1871–1917), and Georg Zenker (1855–1922), there are also collections of Waldemar Belck (1862–1932) from Namibia, Richard Böhm (1854–1884) from Tanzania, Johann Maria Hildebrandt (1847–1881) mostly from Madagascar, Carl Höpfner (1882–1904) from Namibia, Wilhelm Holst (1865–1894) from Tanzania, Alexander von Mechow (1831–1890) from Angola, Richard Quartin-Dillon (1###–1841) from Ethiopia, and of Hans Rudatis (1875–1934) and Friedrich Wilms (1811–1880) both South Africa.

 

Latin America

The most important Latin American vascular plant collection at JE is the Flora de Cuba series originating from a collecting project of German (former GDR) and Cuban institutions from the 1960s until the late 80s, with a total number of more than 70.000 gatherings, of which ca. 55.000 can be found at JE. There are common exsiccata series such as Otto Buchtien (1859–1946), Heinrich Franz Alexander Eggers (1844–1903), Friedrich Wilhelm Rudolf Hostmann (1749–1864) & August Kappler (1815–1887), Cyrus Guernsey Pringle (1838–1911), Franz Wilhelm Sieber (1789–1844), and Paul Sintenis (1847–1907), besides collections of Alfred Bornmüller (1868–1949, Brazil), Frank Hellwig (*1958, Chile), Hermann Karsten (1817–1908, Colombia and Venezuela), Edmund Kerber (18##–1###, Mexico), Paul Günther Lorentz (1835–1881, Argentina), Hans Meyer (Ecuador), Jochen Müller (*1968 , Argentina, Bolivia), Ferdinand Naumann (1841–1902, Patagonia), Rudolf Amandus Philippi (1808–1904, Chile), Eduard Martin Reineck (1869–1931) & Josef Czermak (18##–1###, Brazil), Walter Schumann (18##–1###, Mexico), Carl Troll (1899–1975, Bolivia), and Christoph Weigelt (1###–1828, Suriname).

 

Bryophytes

The bryophyte collections of JE belong to the world‘s largest and most important, containing a plethora of type specimens from all parts of the world. The most important collections are those of Theodor Herzog (1880–1961), Karl Schliephacke (1834–1913), and Riclef Grolle (1934–2004). Theodor Herzog was professor of botany in Jena and one of the leading bryologists of his time. In addition to his collections made during his two travels to Bolivia, his collections enclose a large number of specimens he received from other collectors, e.g., Max Fleischer (1861–1930, Indonesia), Carl Curt Hosseus (1878–1950, South America), Ellsworth Paine Killip (1890–1968, Latin America), Paul Westmacott Richards (1908–1995, Malaysia), Gerhard Helmut Schwabe (1910–1987, East Asia, South America), Paul Carpenter Standley (1884–1963, Latin America), and Carl Troll (India, Latin Ameria). Karl Schliephacke, a Central German businessman with private interest in bryology, especially peat mosses (Sphagnum), assembled a large bryophyte collection that contains many type specimens collected worldwide especially in the decades around 1900. Being in contact with Johann Karl August Müller (“Halensis“) (1818–1899); he integrated many duplicates from Müller‘s vast bryophyte herbarium, which has been destroyed during World War II, in his collection. Schliephacke‘s herbarium came to JE together with the collections of Hermann Winter (1845–1933). Riclef Grolle, a fellow of Theodor Herzog, was among the leading authorities for liverworts. His herbarium contains material from all parts of the world. Further important recent collections at JE are those of Ruprecht Düll (1932–2014, worldwide, own collections especially from the Euro-Mediterranean Region), Ludwig Meinunger (*1936, Germany), Rudolf Marstaller (*1939, Central Europe), Alfons Schäfer-Verwimp (*1950, worldwide), and Hans-Joachim Zündorf (Central and Arctic Europe, Southwestern Asia).